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    Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Flashcards 3rd Edition free pdf

    In this Blog, you can easily download free pdf of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Flashcards 3rd Edition, edited by Kenneth D. Somers, Molly A.Hughes , Stephen A. Morse,

    Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Flashcards 3rd Edition

    About Book

    Lange Flashcards: Microbiology & Infectious Diseases is an approach for studying scientific microbiology in the context of a case vignette highlighting a frequent medical problem. This special method is exceptionally applicable in reviewing for the USMLE Step 1 examination due to the fact Step 1 examination questions are framed in a scientific context. 

    These playing cards furnish the most complete, concise, and high-yield data for the essential microbial ailments prompted by way of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The fundamental and introductory playing cards in every chapter describe the simple standards of every main crew of organisms and the key principles of a variety of companies of infectious agents. 

    Each disease-specific card incorporates a medical vignette on one facet and essential traits of the causative organism and ailment on the reverse side. Information is quick and equipped into sections entitled sickness or scientific syndrome, etiology and epidemiology, scientific manifestations, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, and therapy and prevention. 

    High-yield records is highlighted in daring kind for ease of review. The remaining chapter consists of tables that depict the function of medically vital bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites in important infectious ailment syndromes. 

    These playing cards ought to be an effective and beneficial adjunct to scientific microbiology guides and board-review textbooks in guidance for the USMLE Step 1 examination.

    Bacteria have two primary cellphone envelope constructions differentiated on the groundwork of the Gram stain that are referred to as gram effective and gram negative.

    The gram-positive mobile phone envelope consists of a cytoplasmic membrane comprised of phospholipids and proteins, surrounded through a thick, notably cross-linked layer of peptidoglycan. Other elements may also consist of teichoic acids, lipoteichoic acids, and a range of floor proteins.

    The gram-negative phone envelope consists of an internal cytoplasmic membrane, a thin layer of peptidoglycan that is gently crosslinked, a periplasmic space, and an outer membrane. The outer membrane is an uneven bilayer with a glycolipid (i.e., lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) in its outer leaflet. 

    LPS, additionally regarded as endotoxin, consists of three parts: lipid A, a core polysaccharide, and “O” polysaccharide repeat units. Some gram-negative microorganisms have glycolipids that lack O-antigens and are termed lip oligosaccharides (LOS).

    Peptidoglycan is a complicated polymer consisting of a spine of alternating N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid; a set of equal tetrapeptide aspect chains connected to N-acetylmuramic acid; and a set of same peptide cross-links. 

    The precise cross-link is between a terminal d -alanine of one facet chain and the diamino containing amino acid (lysine or diaminopimelic acid) of a 2nd facet chain. The tetrapeptide facet chains and peptide cross-bridges fluctuate from species to species. 

    Penicillin-binding proteins, additionally acknowledged as transpeptidases, catalyze the cross-linking response and are the ambitions of beta-lactam antibiotics. Cross-linking can be direct or oblique thru a peptide (eg, pentaglycine) bridge.

    Antibiotics make the most the variations between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to promote specificity and restriction toxicity. For example, bacterial enzymes worried in DNA replication and RNA synthesis are exclusive from those observed in eukaryotic cells. 

    The bacterial ribosome is additionally notably different, permitting selective targeting. One of the main variations between microorganism and eukaryotic cells is the peptidoglycan-containing bacterial mobile wall whose synthesis is inhibited via a number of antibiotics.



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