innate and acquired immunity (Physiology Pocket Guyton)

Security is the ability to withstand almost all types of organisms or toxins that damage body tissues. Most organisms have bacterial phagocytosis,

The powers of pathogens dus to acid secretion, digestive digestive enzymes, skin resistance to natural penetration and immunity include specific chemicals in the blood. foreign organizations. Eliminate toxins and these. Security is the ability to develop a highly powerful protection mechanism for some special intruders such as deadly bacteria, viruses, toxins and external materials from other organisms.

Vaccination started with the antigen. Two basic types of immunity obtained in the body occur. Human immunization or B cell immunity involves the onset of antibody circulation capable of attacking an agent. Cell intermediate immunization or T cell immunity is achieved by the formation of active lymphocytes, which is specially developed for destruction of foreign forces.

Since immunity can not be obtained after the invasion of foreign creatures and toxicity, there should be a mechanism to recognize INVVA SION in the body. Any intruder organism or toxic substance is usually one or more specific compounds different from all other compounds. These compounds are called antigens, which begin with the development of immunity.

In order to be expected for the substance, it is usually at least 8000 kD molecular weight. Antigenic processes depend on the regular presence on the surface of large molecules of groups of molecules called epitopes. Large proteins and polysaccharides are almost always antigens because they contain these kinds of stereochemical properties.

Lymphocytes are responsible for acquired immunity. Lymphocytes are found in lymph nodes and certain lymphoid tissues, such as the spleen, subcutaneous regions of the gastrointestinal tract, and bone marrow. Lymph tissue is optimally distributed throughout the body to block invading organisms and toxins before they spread.

There are two populations of lymphocytes, both derived from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate to form lymphocytes. One of the lymphocytes is processed in the thunderstorm. They are called tr-lymphocytes and responsible for the immunity that the cell enters. The other population is processed from Lym Pokstes in bone marrow after birth and late fetal life and childbirth. They are called B lymphocytes and immunity officials.

The educational gland suffers from lymphocytes. Lymphocytes quickly divide extreme diver sites and develop extreme submarine sites to respond to various antigens than different thyme. The T cells remain through the thunderstorm and spread to the lymphoma throughout the body. Most pretreatment of T lymphocytes in the thymus occurs before and immediately after birth. Removal of the thymus after this time reduces the T lymphocyte system but does not eliminate it. However, removal of the thymus several months before birth prevents the development of any cellular immunity.

The liver and bone marrow produce B lymphocytes. Little is known about the specifics or processing of B lymphocytes. In humans, B lymphocytes are preliminary preliminary lifetimes and bone marrow and bone marrow. B lymphocytes are different from L lymphocytes. They secretly secrete large protein molecules that can be actively ditted and destroyed. B lymphocytes have a wide variety of diversity compared to T lymphocytes, and millions of millions of different particular reactive antibodies are formed. After treatment, B. lymphocytes go to the systemic lymphoid tissue near the situation near T lymphocyte.

When special antigen contacts T and B lymphocytes are active in lymphoma tissue, T and B lymphocyte sets produce active T cells and activate active B cells to obtain active B cells to obtain flame retardancy Activate. Trendy cells that are active and are active actively die with antigen, which has begun to develop and remove.

Amplification of lymphocytes awaits activation by an antigen. There are millions of T and B lymphatic cells that are capable of answering good food. All plastic lymphatic cells can only make a type of antibody or a type of t cell with a type of privacy. As soon as lymphocytes are activated by their antigen, they are re-used violently and vibrates the formation of DOS of refined lymphocytes. When lymphocytic swans are a b B lymphocyte, the offspring is finally the circumferential antibody antibody. When lymphocytes are T-lymphocyte lymphocytes, its descendants develop sensitized T cells released in the blood where they circulate through the fabric fluid on the body and return to lymphatic fluid. Each set of lymphocytes that can form a certain antibody or activated T cell is called lymphocyte clone. The lymphocytes of each clone are identical and all are derived from a particular type of precursor lymphocytes.

Pocket Guyton

                                                                                    Book Refrence: Pocket Guyton (twelfth edition)


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