A to Z ORTHODONTICS Volume: 25 ORTHODONTIC pdf free download

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The word orthodontics comes from two Greek words: "orthos" means straight or right and "dons" means tooth. The term orthodontics was used internationally by Frenchman LeFoulon in 1839. The branch of dentistry concerned with the normal growth and development of the body in general, the jaw and teeth in particular; their variations and abnormalities and the prevention and treatment of dentofacial abnormalities within the accepted normal range.
Edward Hartley Angle is an American dentist widely considered the father of modern orthodontics. Edward H. Angle is in his early forties at the time he established himself as a leading dentist. From 1905 to 1928, Angle ran private orthodontic schools in St. Louis, New London, Connecticut, and Pasadena, California, where many of America's leading orthodontists were trained.
It is the ratio between the teeth of one arcing wire and another when the jaws are closed with maximum contact of the upper part.
natural bite
Impeding the acceptable deviation from the ideal.
Tooth irregularities outside the normal acceptable range.
or so
Any deviation from the normal occlusion of the teeth is called malocclusion. The tooth is in an abnormal position relative to the basal bone of the alveolar bone with respect to the adjacent tooth or target.
It may be related to:
1. Wrong position of individual teeth.
2. Anomaly of short dentition. 3. Alignment of the tooth base.

Due to malocclusion, the following adverse sequences may occur:
Poor appearance of the patient's face:

Malocclusion can make a face look bad.
• Risk of tooth decay:

Dental misalignment makes it difficult to maintain good oral health and thus increases the risk of tooth decay.
Susceptibility to PDL:

Malocclusion is one of the most common causes of PDL, and in addition to poor oral hygiene, traumatic obstruction can damage PDL tissue. 
• Psychological Disturbance: 

Poor facial appearance of the patient makes a person highly selfconcious withdrawal from the society & introvert. 
• Risk of Trauma: 

Severely proclined teeth arc at high risk during playing or accidental fall. 
• Abnormalities in function: 

Mainly malocclusion causes abnormalities in function such as improper diglutation, speech problem, and improper respiratory pattern. 
• TMJ Problem: 

Malocclusion associated with premature contacts and deep bite may lead to TMJ prolem such as pain and disfunction (cliking sound) 
• Impacted and unerupted teeth: 

If there are impacted or unerupted teeth, they can lead to cystic change and damage the adjacent teeth. 
Criteria of normal occlusion 
a. The teeth of the lower jaw are located in an inclined plane in front of the upper teeth (because the maxillary incisors are narrower than the upper teeth).
B. The maxillary teeth are superimposed on the teeth of the lower jaw in the form of a buccal hemisphere (the maxillary teeth overlap with the buccal protuberances of the maxillary teeth).
C. The mesobuccal cusp of the upper first permanent molars is blocked by the anterior buccal groove of the lower first permanent molars. (Class I molar ratio).
D. The upper permanent canine closes in the space between the lower permanent canine and the first premolar (class I canine relationship).
And. The edges of the lower incisors are closed with the middle third (plateau cingulum) of the palatal surface of the upper incisors. about the jet
It overlaps horizontally between the upper and lower front teeth.
Normally it is 2-3 mm.
Variety of About Jet
• General.
• Decreases.
• increased. 
• Horizontal flap or cross-over closure - where the bottom front overlaps the top front.
• Edge-Edge Byte.

It is measured from the labial surface of the lower incisors to the indentation of the upper incisors [the most inclined teeth], and a typical horizontal overlap is 2–3 mm.
Pathogenesis [Class IIdiv1]⇒
• Hereditary.
• Habit. •Anonymous.

This is the part where the upper and lower front teeth overlap vertically.
Usually 2-3 mm.
• Deep occlusion-deep occlusion
Incomplete deep occlusion
• Closed blockage
• Open byte

Deep occlusion: Where the overbite is 2-3 mm or more. 
Complete deep bite: Where the lower anterior contact either the upper anterior or palatal mucosa. 
Incomplete deep bite: Where the overbite is increased but the lower anterior fail to contact upper anterior or palatal mucosa, usually seen in tongue thrust swallowers. 
Closed bite: Where the upper anterior overlap the lower anterior completely Characteristic feature of class II division 2 malocclusion. 
Open bite: Lack of vertical overlapping of teeth. 
To measure the overbite, make a mark of the incisal edges of upper anterior teeth on the labial surface of lower anterior teeth. The distance between the incisal edges of the lower incisors of the mark gives more than the occlusion in millimeters.
perfect blocking
An occlusal, structural and functional relationship that encompasses the ideal principles and properties that an occlusion should have.

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