Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 14th edition


Pharmacology can be defined as the study of substances that interact with living systems through chemical processes. These interactions usually occur by binding of the substance to regulatory molecules and activating or inhibiting normal body processes.  These substances may be chemicals administered to achieve a beneficial therapeutic effect on some process within the patient or for their toxic effects on regulatory processes in parasites infecting the patient. Such deliberate therapeutic applications may be considered the proper role of medical pharmacology, which is often defined as the science of substances used to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. Toxicology is the branch of pharmacology that deals with the undesirable effects of chemicals on living systems, from individual cells to humans to complex ecosystems. The nature of drugs - their physical properties and interactions With biological systems - this was discussed in part 1 Chapter on the Development and Regulation of New Drugs by Government agencies are discussed in the second section. History of pharmacology Prehistoric men realized it was useful or poisonous Traces of many plant and animal materials first written traces List many drugs, including some that are still known But, as useful medicines today, most of them were worthless or It's actually harmful Sporadic attempts have been made over the past 1500 years created to introduce rational methods in medicine, but not he succeeded thanks to the domination of systems of thought ("schools") which claimed to explain all biology and disease without the need for experimentation and observation. This schools proclaimed bizarre notions such as the idea that disease it was caused by too much bile or blood in the body, which hurts can be cured by applying ointment to the weapon that caused the injury and so on.

Towards the end of the 17th century, relying on the observation and experiments began to replace theorizing in physiology and clinical medicine. If the value of these methods in the study the disease became evident, doctors in Britain and on The continent has begun to apply them to the effects of traditional medicines used in their own practice. Materia Medica, the science of the preparation of medicines and the medical use of medicines began to develop as a precursor to pharmacology. However, any real understanding mechanisms of action of drugs have since been prevented lack of methods to purify the active substances from the crude oil available materials and, even more so, due to the lack of methods for testing hypotheses about the nature of pharmacological actions. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, François Magendie and his student Claude Bernard began to develop the methods experimental physiology and pharmacology. Progress in chemistry and the subsequent development of physiology in the The 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries laid the necessary foundations to understand how drugs affect organs and tissues. Paradoxically, real advances in basic pharmacology during this accompanied by an explosion of unscientific claims about manufacturers and distributors of worthless "patented drugs". Do not to the concepts of rational therapy, especially those of controlled clinical trial, have been reintroduced into medicine - only

about 60 years ago - it had become possible to assess adequately therapeutic claims. Around the 1940s and 1950s, a major expansion of research Efforts have begun in all areas of biology. Like a new concept Technology was introduced and information about drugs was collected A drug receptor that is an action and the biological substrate of that action. Over the last 60 years, many radically new drug groups have emerged And new members of the old group were introduced. Last four For decades, information growth has been even faster. Understanding the molecular basis of drug action. The molecular mechanism of action of many drugs is now Identified and numerous receptors structurally isolated It will be characterized and cloned. Indeed, the use of receptor identification The method (explained in Chapter 2) led to the discovery Many orphan receptors-receptors that do not have ligands Discovered and its function is only intuitive. Research Marked in the local molecular environment of receptors Receiver and influencer do not act separately. they It is highly influenced by other relevant receptors and modulators protein

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