First Aid Usmle Step1 2022 pdf free download

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First Aid Usmle Step1 2022


This high-yield material includes molecular biology, genetics, cell biology, and principles of metabolism (especially vitamins, cofactors, minerals, and single-enzyme-deficiency diseases) of Biochemistry. When studyingmetabolic pathways, emphasize important regulatory steps and enzyme deficiencies that result in disease, as well as reactions targeted by pharmacologic interventions. For example, understanding the defect in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and its clinical consequences is higher yield than memorizing every intermediate in the purine salvage pathway . 


Learning the components of the immune system and their roles in host defense at the cellular level is essential for both the understanding of disease pathophysiology and clinical practice. Know the immune mechanisms of responses to vaccines. Both congenital immunodeficiency syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can be tested. The high efficiency of cell surface markers is useful for understanding immune cell interactions and for laboratory diagnosis. Understand the role and function of major cytokines and chemokines.


Microbiology questions in phase 1 experiments often require two (or more) steps. For a specific clinical manifestation, the most likely pathogen must first be identified and then the organism or antimicrobial agent associated with it. For example, the following questions describe a child with fever and petechiae: 


The fundamental principles of pathology are key to understanding diseases in all organ systems. Major topics such as inflammation and neoplasia appear frequently in questions across different organ systems, and such topics are definitely high yield. For example, the concepts of cell injury and inflammation are key to understanding the inflammatory response that follows myocardial infarction, a very common subject of board questions. Similarly, a familiarity with the early cellular changes that culminate in the development of neoplasias—for example, esophageal or colon cancer—is critical. Finally, make sure you recognize the major tumor-associated genes and are comfortable with key cancer concepts such as tumor staging and metastasis


Preparation for pharmacology questions is not as straightforward as in years past. An important recent change is that USMLE Step 1 has moved away from pharmacotherapy testing. This means that you do not usually need to identify medications that are indicated for a particular disease. You still need to know the important mechanisms and side effects of the main drugs and their main types. Dark derivatives have high yields. Learn about the classic toxicities and their characteristics, as well as their key drug interactions. public health sciences

A heterogeneous combination of epidemiology, biostatistics, ethics, law, health care, patient safety, quality improvement, etc. is called public health science. Biostatistics and epidemiology form the basis of evidence-based medicine and are highly effective. Make sure you can quickly apply biological statistical equations such as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values ​​when solving problems. Also learn how to set up your 2x2 tables and watch out for questions that switch columns. Questions about quality improvement and patient safety were introduced in the test a few years ago and show trends in health system science. Medical ethics questions often require the application of principles. Usually, you are presented with the patient's scenario and then asked how you would respond to it. In this issue, as testing becomes more prominent, we provide more detail about communication skills and patient care. Effective communication is essential for physician and patient engagement. Clinicians should look for ways to communicate with patients, understand their perspectives, express empathy, and make shared decisions and realistic goals. Cardiovascula

The cardiovascular system is one of the highest performing areas on the board and can be the most challenging for some students. Focusing on understanding the mechanism instead of memorizing the details can make a big difference. The pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and heart failure, MOAs (Specific Physiological Interactions) of drugs and their adverse effects, EKGs of heart blocks, cardiac cycle and Stirling curves are some of the more lucrative topics. It is also very important to distinguish between contractile dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction. Heart murmurs and surgeries affecting them are also rich and can be requested in a multimedia format. Endocrine

The endocrine system consists of widely distributed organs that work in a highly integrated way to regulate the state of hormonal balance in the body. In general, endocrine disorders can be classified as under or overproduction disorders or as conditions with the development of mass lesions, which in turn can be associated with a deficiency or overproduction of hormones. Therefore, he first studies the endocrine system by learning about the glands, their hormones, and how they are regulated, and then integrates disease manifestations with diagnosis and management. Take the time to learn multiple system communications.


When studying the digestive system, be sure to understand normal embryology, anatomy and physiology, and how the system is affected by various diseases. Two similar diseases can be distinguished by studying the pathophysiology of a disease as well as its specific consequences. For example, what is the difference between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease? You will also learn basic interpretation of abdominal x-rays, CT scans, and endoscopic images.

Hematology and Oncology

When studying hematology, pay close attention to its many interactions with immunology. Control different types of anemia. Feel comfortable interpreting a blood smear. When evaluating oncology drugs, focus on the mechanisms and side effects, rather than the details of clinical applications that may lead to lower efficacy.

Musculoskeletal system, skin and connective tissue

This chapter provides the information you need to understand common anatomical disorders, orthopedic diseases, rheumatic diseases and skin diseases. Interpret three-dimensional anatomy in the field of radiological imaging. For rheumatic diseases, prepare training items with the most likely manifestations and symptoms: risk factors, gender, important markers (such as autoantibodies), and other epidemiological factors. This will allow you to answer the higher grade questions that are likely to be asked in the exam. Special nerves and senses

Understand the underlying anatomical findings and differences between upper and lower motor neuron lesions. Identify the main motor, sensory, cerebellar, and visual pathways and their locations in the CNS. Major neurological association with specific pathologies (such as cerebellar lesions, stroke symptoms, Brown Scar syndrome). Recognize common findings on MRI / CT (such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke) and neuropathology (such as neurofibrillary tangles and lumbar bodies). High-performance drugs include drugs used to treat epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, migraines, and pain (such as opiates). Psychiatry

This chapter deals with the overlapping areas of psychiatry, psychology, sociology and psychiatry. High-risk subjects include schizophrenia, mood disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders, physical symptom disorders, substance use disorders, and antipsychotics. Understand the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing common psychiatric disorders


The ability to understand and apply renal physiology is essential to the test. Major topics include electrolyte disorders, acid-base disorders, glomerular disorders (including histopathology), acute disorders

And chronic kidney disease, plaster, diuretics, ACE inhibitors and AT II receptor blockers. Kidney abnormalities associated with various birth defects are also high-efficiency compounds to consider when reviewing childhood photos. Reproduction

Organizing the reproductive system according to important concepts such as embryology, endocrinology, pregnancy, and oncology helps to understand this complex subject. Studying the endocrine and reproductive chapters together, as learning the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis is the key to answering questions about ovulation, menstruation, impaired sexual development, contraception and many medical conditions. please.


When possible, collect and study key concepts of respiratory, cardiovascular, and kidney. Respiratory physiology is challenging, but very productive, especially when it comes to pathophysiology of respiratory diseases. Complete understanding of normal respiratory function. Learn about obstructive pulmonary disease versus fixation, ventilation versus perfusion mismatch, lung volume, respiratory mechanics, and hemoglobin physiology. Lung cancer and other causes of lung masses are also common.

Quick check

The following tables show a number of powerful relationships between diseases and their clinical outcomes, treatments, and key relationships. They can be checked quickly in the days leading up to the test.

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